It is said that there were four branches of the Vaibhasika school, so called after the Vaibhasika Shastra.
The school adhered primarily to two Sarvastivadin texts, the Jnanaprasthana and Abhidharmavibbasa-shastra.
Vaisya in Sanskrit, Vaishya in Pali. The third of the four Indian Castes at the time of Shakyamuni. They were merchant, entrepreneurs, traders, farmers, manufacturers, etc., but not well-educated.
Also called Tantrayana.
Vast and Long Tongue
one of the thirty-two monks of Buddha, big enough to cover his face; it is also one of the "marvels" in the Lotus Sutra.
Buddhist philosopher of 500 A.D. The 21st Buddhist patriach of Mahayana Buddhism. He was great Buddhist commentator in Hinayana, but was converted to Yogacara by his brother Asanga.
Vatsiputriyas in Sanskrit, Vajjiputtakas in Pali. Hinayanist sect often linked with Sammatiyah, which broke from the orothodox Sarvastivada. The founder was Vatsa. They may be classified as Pudgalavadins, accepting the pudgala transmigrated, and rejecting the theory of the Five Skandhas (the Five Aggregates comprising personality). They were
considered schismatics through their insistence on the reality of the self. That individual self is neither the same nor different from the Five Skandhas. The doctrine challenged the Dharma exposition by the Sarvastivadah. The school was later dividied into four:
see Sensation or Five Skandhas.
Literally, it means knowledge. They are basic scriptures of Hinduism in India, composed between 2000 and 500 B.C.
They consist of Rg-veda, Sama-veda, Yajur-veda and Atharva-veda. The collection is also known as the Vedic Samhita.
Apart from Samhita, the Vedic literature regarded as Sruti were Brahmana, Aranyaka and Upanisads.
Literally means Distinctionist or Holders of the Doctrine of Distinctions. A sect of Ashoka's Council at Pataliputra (i.e. the Third Council). They were called as they made a distinction of phenomena in time into two categories; those that exist and those that do no.
The meaning of the term, not necessarily limited to this sect, is the method
of particularization in dealing with questions in debate. It is said that this
school was established to harmonize the difference between the Sthaviras and
The Abhidhamma Pitaka was the definite work of this school, thus they gained supremacy over the Sarvastivadins in the Third Council.
the fourth Paramita, pure and unadulterated progress, i.e. zealous and courageous progressing in the good, and eliminating the evil.
Vimalakirti, a Sanskrit word, means undefiled and pure reputation. Vimalakirti was said to be a native of Vaisali, and an upasaka (not a monk) to assist Shakyamuni to preach and cross over the human beings. The Sutra is the record of interesting conversation between Vimalakirti and Manjusri Bodhisattva regarding the understanding of One Buddha Vehicle.
Emphasizes the monastic discipline founded by Tao Hsuan of the Tang Dynasty in China.
Vipasyana Sukhavativyuha Sutra
It is one of the main sutra for Pure Land Sect. The Sutra indicates that the Pure Land of Amitabha Buddha is one of the Buddha Lands. It also describes how to be born in the Pure Land through the Sixteen Contemplations. Therefore, the Sutra is also called "Sixteen Contemplations Sutra".
As one of the Four Great Bodhisattva, he is the one with the highest conduct. Visvabhadra, also known as Samantabhadra, means universal worthy. He is the lord of the fundamental law, the dhyana ( taking precepts) and the practice of all Buddhas. Visvabhadra, the guardian of law, is often placed on the right of Shakyamuni, while Manjusri, the guardian of wisdom, is the left. He always rides on a white elephant, is the patron of the Lotus Sutra, and its devotees, and has close connection with Hua-yen Sutra. He has Ten Great King Vows, which give an excellent guideline to all Buddhists to practice and cultivate the Buddha Way.
or mental formation, or action, or conduct, or deed, usually done through the body, mouth or mind. The Sanskrit word is Samskara.
Vasubandhu Bodhisattva's Commentary on the Way to Reaching Pure Land
A commentary by Vasubandhu Bodhisattva on the Infinite Life Sutra. In twenty-four stanzas, Vasubandhu explains how to attain birth in the Pure Land and praises the wonders Pure Land.
A Sanskrit name for Shakyamuni Buddha, the Thus Come One of this saha world. In Sanskrit, the name Vairochana means "pervading everywhere." It refers to the Dharma body of Shakyamuni Buddha.