Thus, we need to know the proper sequence of cultivation, which is belief,
understanding, practice and attainment. When we speak of belief, first we believe
in ourselves. This is where Buddhism differs from religion. In religion, the most
important criterion is to believe in God. In Buddhism, the most important criterion
is to believe in ourselves, not something outside of ourselves. We need to believe
that we have the same Buddha nature. Believe that originally we were Buddhas.
Believe that we are no different from the Buddhas. Believe that our true nature
has become polluted and that once we remove this pollution we will uncover our
However, if we are always dwelling on thoughts that we have heavy karmic obstacles
and fear that this will keep us from achieving attainment, then we definitely
will not achieve. Why? If we do not believe that we can achieve, then even the
Buddhas and Bodhisattvas cannot help us. Buddhas and Bodhisattvas can only help
those who help themselves. Therefore, it is crucial that we have this confidence
and belief in ourselves.
In addition, we also need to believe in the teachings of the Buddhas. We have
been told infinite principles and methods. We will surely succeed as long as we
follow them. After we have belief in ourselves, we need to have belief in the
Buddha¡¦s teachings. Master Ou-Yi described this as believing in
principles and in matter. Where does matter come from? From the principle, that
is the pure mind of the true nature. All phenomena in the universe arise from
the principle. They are related by the endless cycle of cause and effect. A cause
gives rise to an effect, which in turn becomes the cause of the next effect. This
process continues ceaselessly. Developing understanding and belief in true reality
builds our confidence enabling us to seek thorough understanding of everything.
Only in this way can we be free from confusion and doubt, which are obstacles
in our cultivation and thus obtain enjoyment and smooth advancement.
In practicing Buddhism, it is most important to accept the teacher¡¦s
instructions and practice according to the recommended methods. This has been
the right way to learn since ancient times. The first requirement was to follow
the five-year learning restriction, which was set by the teacher. In so doing,
the teacher took full responsibility for whether the student succeeded or failed.
This is the principle of honoring teachers and revering their teachings. This
principle, however, no longer holds today for teachers are not responsible and
students are not earnest. The principles of teaching are declining and this is
the tragedy of our times. Students no longer respect teachers and teachers no
longer sincerely help students to achieve.
The five-year learning restriction resulted in the student following just one
teacher. It laid the foundation for the Three Learnings of self-discipline, deep
concentration and wisdom. It was the responsibility of the teacher to see that
the student learned this. Consider Zen Buddhism. What did the teacher ask of the
student for the first five years? They were assigned simple manual labor and asked
to perform it earnestly, without change, every day. They were also to memorize
the sutra. They were to read after completing their work and not to be concerned
with anything else. The purpose of this labor was not to treat them as servants.
After a while the student felt bored and would think that he or she had worked
very hard for five years without accomplishing anything. In actuality, he or she
had acquired much without realizing it. What was acquired? Afflictions were greatly
reduced and concentration was increased because of a ban against seeing and listening
to many things. If the ban was properly followed, the students attained both good
fortune and wisdom. What is good fortune? Working every day in the way place was
cultivating the practice of giving. Since monks and nuns had no money to give
away, they could work to cultivate the Paramita of Giving. Through the restrictions
on listening and reading thereby concentrating the six sense organs, the students
also acquired a pure mind and attained deep concentration. This is wisdom. So,
the teacher taught the students to cultivate good fortune and establish the foundation
of self-discipline, deep concentration and wisdom. The teaching was designed to
be subtle yet effective. With the five-year learning restriction as a base, upon
listening to one or two years of Dharma lectures, the students could become enlightened.
In the biographies of well accomplished monks and nuns we see that through this
method many of them become enlightened in three to five years. Today, however,
practitioners can live in a way place for thirty or fifty years, even a lifetime
without awakening. They may have read numerous sutras but were still not enlightened.
At most, they have memorized some general knowledge about Buddhism, but have done
nothing to sever their afflictions or attain wisdom. So, we must try to find a
good teacher for guidance. This advice may seem boring at first. But after the
initial stage, we will be truly delighted and joyful in our attainment.
Many of us have made the big mistake at the beginning of our cultivation, of wanting
to learn all different methods. Ancient learned monks and nuns started with the
second of the Great Vows of Buddhas and Bodhisattva, ¡§Afflictions
are inexhaustible, I vow to end them all¡¨. In ending all afflictions,
we will achieve deep concentration and attain wisdom. Then, the ¡§Ways
to practice are boundless, I vow to master them all¡¨. This is the correct
order for cultivation. The mistake many people make is to attempt to study extensively
without having severed afflictions. Master Qingliang called this ¡§Understanding
with no practice¡¨. These people concentrate only on understanding while
neglecting the practice. They do not try to end their afflictions to cultivate
a pure mind. As a result, they develop deviated viewpoints rather than proper
views and knowledge.
Practicing the Three Learnings Concurrently
What is the first step in learning Buddhism? Start by reciting one sutra. Do we
need to understand it? No. For when we have not ended afflictions, our understanding
will be erroneous. Then why do we recite only this sutra? By reciting the sutra,
the Three Learnings of self-discipline, deep concentration and wisdom are accomplished
Self-discipline requires that we ¡§Do nothing that is bad. Do all that
is good¡¨. Reciting a sutra can prevent us from generating wandering
thoughts so we will be prevented from doing anything that is bad. Sutras are words
that flow from the Buddha¡¦s true nature. Nothing can surpass these
words in virtue. Therefore, reciting a sutra is doing all that is good and results
in the perfection of self-discipline so there is no need to practice the precepts
When reciting a sutra we must focus. By focusing, we cultivate concentration.
Clearly enunciating every word correctly without any omission is the practice
of wisdom. Therefore reciting the sutra properly is to practice the Three Learnings
at the same time. Any attempt to analyze the sutra while reciting is in fact treating
the sutra as a worldly book. This will result in none of the Three Learnings being
accomplished and is not true cultivation. Never belittle the practice of sutra
recitation, as it is the base of cultivation. Reciting for one hour accomplishes
one hour of cultivation, reciting for two hours accomplishes two hours of cultivation,
etc. Needless to say, the longer the better.
Many of my fellow practitioners in Taiwan and Dallas are reciting the Infinite
Life Sutra ten times a day. So far, some may have chanted the sutra over two thousand
times, thus they are very familiar with the text and only need thirty to forty-five
minutes to finish one sutra. Reciting ten times thus means five or six hours of
practicing self-discipline, deep concentration and wisdom. With so many hours
devoted to cultivation, we will naturally develop a serene mind in just a few
Sutras flow from the pure and quiet mind of the Buddha. When we have developed
a mind as pure and quiet, we will understand all we read in the sutra. The reason
why the sutra is so hard to understand now is that our minds are filled with wandering
thoughts. How can this mind be in harmony with one that is pure and quiet? This
is why we do not understand the Buddha¡¦s words. So, if we want to
learn from a good teacher, we need to trust and believe that their methods are
proper and correct.
Just chose one sutra without being distracted by any others. If we chose to follow
the Pure Land School, we recite and study the Infinite Life Sutra. If we choose
to follow the Tiantai School, we recite and study the Lotus Sutra. If we choose
to follow the Flower Adornment School, we recite and study the Flower Adornment
Sutra. When choosing a school, follow its principles and delve deeply into the
sutra for five years. In other words sever all afflictions and try to develop
a pure and quiet heart. This is the first step in learning Buddhism.
Frankly speaking, five years of learning and cultivating were enough for a practitioner
to attain a pure mind in the past, because their minds were not as polluted as
ours now are. In the past, children would remain innocent until around ten years
of age. Then they would begin to be aware of differences between right and wrong,
self and others. They would begin to develop such characteristics as greed, anger,
ignorance and arrogance. Look at today¡¦s children. They start showing
greed, anger, ignorance and arrogance when they are only a few years old! Where
do they learn these things? From television. They are exposed to television every
day. They naturally become polluted. They do not have the happy innocent childhood
their parents had. How unfortunate they are!
I was born and grew up in the countryside and was neither sensible nor knowing
of the world until I was thirteen. True Happiness is to remain innocent as long
as possible in childhood and to not be aware of any of the suffering in the world.
All I knew was how to play. Once we loose our childhood innocence, we are no longer
happy. For then, we have to be constantly aware of others. So, I say that modern
people are less fortunate than their predecessors were.
Once we have developed a pure and quiet mind and have attained wisdom, then we
can begin to broaden our knowledge. We can see, hear and learn of anything that
we are interested in, for now we have attained wisdom and will not be affected
by our surroundings. Since we have self-control, the more we see and hear the
wiser we will become and the greater our strength from deep concentration will
be. How are deep concentration and wisdom increased? Remaining unmoved by surroundings
will enhance deep concentration. Developing a clear and understanding mind will
enhance wisdom. Then we can learn from other schools to further enhance our deep
concentration and wisdom. First, we practice self-discipline, deep concentration
and wisdom to attain our original wisdom. Then we can learn extensively to perfect
our acquired wisdom. This is the way of learning from ancient times.
The Buddha told us in the Great Prajna Sutra, ¡§Innocent intuitive
wisdom knows all¡¨. So, we must cultivate ¡§innocence¡¨
first. The five-year method of practicing self-discipline results in our remaining
innocent of the happenings in the world. When we are again in contact with the
world, we will be aware of ¡§Knowing all¡¨. This is the proper
sequence and method to learn and practice Buddhism.
Ancient patriarchs not only abided by the rules set by Buddha Shakyamuni but also
took Confucianism as the basis for their learning and practice. Chinese Buddhism
has abandoned Theravada Buddhism in place of Confucius teachings. Chinese Buddhists
as the basis for learning Buddhism adopted the Confucian five virtues of gentleness,
kindness, respectfulness, thriftiness and humility. From this foundation, they
developed the Three Conditions, the Six Principles of Harmony, the Three Learnings,
the Six Paramitas and the Ten Great Vows. All the schools of Mahayana Buddhism
adopted this framework of learning and teaching. In other words, we can accomplish
our learning and cultivation in any school as long as we follow these principles
and methods. So, we can say that the Five Virtues and Six Harmonies are the basis
and a unique characteristic of Chinese Buddhism.
There was another advanced method of teaching and learning in Buddhism; continuing
education for teachers. It was not until recently that this method again came
into use. When he was in this world, the Buddha had many students. Some stayed
with him because they had not finished their study and thus had not yet become
independent. But others had reached some achievement. The latter were Bodhisattvas,
who were responsible for spreading Buddhism. They went to different locations,
set up way places and taught on behalf of the Buddha. Then they would return to
where the Buddha currently was for a three months summer retreat for continuing
education. This is similar to today¡¦s summer vacation when the students
are out of school but the teachers cannot rest for they need to receive further
training. So, the Bodhisattvas went back to be with the Buddha for a summer retreat.
They listened to his teaching and thus were able to increase their concentration,
wisdom and virtues. They also discussed difficulties they had encountered in their
teaching and tried to find solutions. They learned from each other in seeking
self-improvement. This system of continuing education has been infrequently seen
in Chinese history.
It is advisable that way places and Buddhist societies conduct summer and winter
retreats of Buddha name recitation and Zen meditation, seminars, etc. for short-term
training. This is very effective and people are able to accept this idea of short-term
continuing education. If we directly tell them that it is for severing afflictions;
cultivating self-discipline, deep concentration and wisdom; and transcending the
cycle of birth and death, only a few people will be interested and able to accept
Today, people differ in their concept of Buddhist education from those in the
past. They want to learn more at the beginning of their study, not knowing that
their method will limit their accomplishment whereas following the traditional
method in practicing Buddhism can result in infinite benefits. In the past, many
people have benefited from this traditional method, achieved in their cultivation
and attained Buddhahood. However, at best, the present methods can only help us
to get a doctorate of Buddhism, fame and wealth. But frankly speaking, it will
not be easy for us to sever afflictions or transcend the cycle of birth and death.
We should consider this very carefully.
CHAPTER EIGHT: THE ARTISTIC ASPECTS OF BUDDHIST EDUCATION
The Earliest System of Continuing Education
Buddha Shakyamuni gave lectures in many places, as did Confucius. In India,
the Buddha and his students were invited by different groups to give talks.
They would lecture in those areas for a while but did not remain permanently.
As most of the Buddha¡¦s one thousand, two hundred and fifty students
would follow him, it would have been very difficult for one place to support
all of them. Only after Buddhism was introduced into China did Buddhist monks
and nuns take up permanent residence in what was similar to a Buddhist educational
institution. This came about because the introduction of Buddhism into China
was supported and financed by the emperor. In India, people respected ascetics
who traveled holding an alms bowl and therefore supplied them with offerings.
In China, however, people would have regarded this tradition as begging. Since
the emperor, who respected them as teachers, had invited the monks to China,
it would have been unacceptable to have them roaming the streets begging for
food. Therefore, houses were built for them to live in and people were sent
by the imperial court to assist the monks so they would not have to worry about
their livelihood. By the Tang Dynasty, the system of Buddhist universities had
developed. Masters Baizhang and Mazu were the initiators of these institutions.
Master Mazu was the Eighth Patriarch of the Zen School and the third generation
student of Master Hui-Neng, the sixth Patriarch of the Zen School. There is
a Chinese saying that ¡§Master Mazu built the university and Master
Baizhang set up the rules¡¨.
What is this Buddhist University? It was the systemization of Buddhist teaching;
the next step after what had been the verbal passing of teachings from a teacher
to private students. After Master Mazu, the idea of the university continued
to grow. This educational system was the special feature of Chinese Buddhism.
The textbooks, lectures and teaching methods all attained the highest level
of artistry as can be seen in the writing, music, images, architecture, offering
implements, etc. Today, however, many of these perfect teachings are lost to
The Art of Buddhism
Today, the quality of Buddhist music has deteriorated. We are short of talented
people, not only Buddhist artists with creative talents. Therefore, a Buddhist
artist has to be profoundly learned for only then can he or she truly teach
others and convey truth, goodness, beauty and wisdom. Ancient masters with high
spiritual achievements composed Buddhist musical lyrics, but because the minds
of today¡¦s people who chant them are not pure, their expression
of them is also not pure. Spiritually, they have yet to achieve a state of awakening
and are thus unable to move us. The artistic decline is caused by the lack of
talented practitioners, it does not mean that Buddhism lacks artistic substance.
Anyone who has been to China and visited the Dunhuang murals or the Yungang
grottoes, or the stone sutra texts found in Fangshan County, Beijing, knows
how magnificent Chinese Buddhist artworks can be. The stone sutras were found
in the years after the Cultural Revolution and are more extensive than the Great
Buddhist Canon. Some of the sutras were translated at a later time than those
in the Great Buddhist Canon. Fortunately, they survived in the Fangshan site.
The stone slabs are carved on both sides with each beautiful character the size
of a thumb. The entire project took four hundred years to complete, equal in
scale to the building of the Great Wall. This recently discovered collection
includes tens of thousands of stone slabs stored in seven caves. At present,
only two of the caves are open to the public. We were filled with awe and admiration
when we saw these stone sutras and could not help but admire our ancestors for
having preserved such a legacy for us.
Today, schools and museums are separated. However, the system of Buddhist universities
is similar to a combination of school and museum, for the art forms are educational,
not just artistic. They exhibit inspiration and wisdom not discernable by average
people. For example, when people see the many images of Buddhas and Bodhisattvas,
they conclude that Buddhists worship many deities and therefore Buddhism is
a religion and one of low standards at that.