The holistic hierarchy
described here is reminiscent of Leibniz's system of monads, which are basically
spiritual, psychic entities positioned in a metaphysical hierarchy (104). The
higher a monad is positioned, the more it represents the reality of the universe,
each from its own perspective. There is an all-encompassing supreme monad: God.
"The source of mechanics lies in meta-physics", according to Leibniz.
He pointed out that the whole overall system is totally homogeneous, without
discrete steps. The interaction between monads at different levels, such as
the soul and the body, is due to a harmony preestablished by God, according
There are two types of causality. We are used to the type confined to space and time: if certain conditions exist and certain events occur at some time, then these cause another set of conditions and events at a later time. This is the scientific type of reasoning. It deals with parts on the same order level, for instance within our 3-D world. We shall call this type of causal relationship "temporal causation", because time passes between its cause and effect. The maximum speed with which temporal causation can occur is the speed of light, according to Einstein. The other type of causation occurs between wholes and their parts, between dimensional orders (HP10). This type was more perceived by the Greek philosophers (105). We shall call it "holistic causation". In contrast to temporal causation, holistic causation can cause correlated events to appear in our world perfectly simultaneously, giving us the impression that they communicate faster than the speed of light. This is so because one of these events is not the result of another in time and space, but both events are the result of the same "super-event" in M-D space. The super-event may or may not appear simultaneously in our physical world, depending on what aspect of the M-D event we observe, depending on which of the multiple worlds we happen to occupy. Quantum physicists have indeed observed causation with higher speed than light. They call it "superluminal causation". The Aspect experiment mentioned before demonstrated holistic causation. The polarization of one photon changed instantaneously with that of its twin photon.
Holistic causation occurs between the soul and its constituent selves (Sect.4). All selves influence their common soul, and the soul influences all its selves simultaneously, no matter where they happen to appear in time and space. No temporal causation exists between reincarnations, unless they meet in physical life. From the holistic point of view, the prevailing understanding of karma is misleading. Originally it meant the force of creation, wherefrom all things have their life. Later the meaning was distorted to imply fate, caused by one's own actions in former incarnations. The original meaning represents holistic causation. Apparently, with time people lost this understanding, and the definition of karma deteriorated to the temporal causation version.
Between our inner self and the sum of our body and conscious mind is a constant flux of holistic causation. Carl Jung coined the term "synchronicity" for correlated psychological events that occur coincidentally, although they don't appear to be causally related to each other. Such experiences are not infrequent. For instance one may think of a person and then meet this person by chance, or one receives the news that the person has passed away. Jung referred to an extensive literature on telepathy, extrasensory perception, clairvoyance and similar phenomena in support of the principle of synchronicity (106)(107). Another example of holistic causation are similar experiences that occur frequently to monozygotic twins. They often feel the same physical pain simultaneously, even though they may be separated by great distances. In holistic terms monozygotic twins form one M-D entity.
5. PRACTICAL IMPACT
IMPACT ON THE INDIVIDUAL
Aristotle said that happiness is the goal of human nature (108). What does holistic reasoning tell us about reaching this goal? We can say that happiness is a state of harmony within our self and with the world. The state of harmony exists in the whole of a holon (HP5). Therefore we want to identify with the whole that is immanent in us and that unites us with the world: All-Entity. This discussion is not an attempt to coax the reader into a religious conversion. Instead it shows how straightforward, rational holistic logic leads naturally to the key tenets of major world religions.
The highest form of identification between living beings is love. Thus one gains happiness through loving All-Entity. This is exactly what Jesus Christ told us, it is his first commandment (109). One cannot love the whole without loving its parts. So one cannot love All-Entity without loving one's fellow humans. Hence Christ's second commandment, to love one's neighbor as oneself. This message is perceived as a moral demand. Holistic reasoning tells us that it is the logically smart thing to do, smart from an egotistical point of view as well as from an altruistic one. Thus holistic logic transcends opposites. The ten commandments revealed earlier to the Jewish people are in line with the basic commands for love, spelled out in specific detail, as may have been more appropriate at that time.
Hinduism, as mentioned earlier, is based on its ancient Veda scriptures. Its ultimate aim is to identify with the inner "Atman", who is also "Brahman" when perceived as the whole of the universe, our concept of All-Entity. It is the path of mysticism. A step-by-step description of a mystic path towards enlightenment is given in the "Yoga Aphorisms of Patanjali" (110).
Buddha, after his mystical enlightenment, taught that the world of appearances leads us to errors in judgement, with corresponding unpleasant consequences. According to him, no permanent security can be found except in the identification with the ultimate transcendent whole, the "Nirvana". Nirvana cannot be described in words, "because human language is too poor to express the real nature of the Absolute Truth or Ultimate Reality that is Nirvana" (111). Buddhism follows a mystic philosophy similar to Hinduism, with the difference that the ultimate whole does not have the theistic connotation. However, such differences come from the limitations of human perception and do not affect the principle. Ultimate mystic union is sought in the Eastern philosophy-religions through meditation, with a tendency to withdraw from our world of appearances. This aspect of Eastern thought goes against the grain of Western thinking. We see our society as antithesis to introverted withdrawal. However, if meditation is done correctly, it puts us in an intimate contact with the rest of the world, as it must, because the whole world is immanent in us.
Westerners tend to be extroverted and find satisfaction in expressing their inner potentials. This is totally compatible with holistic thinking and akin to the Eastern philosophy of Karma Yoga. In striving for active expression of one's innermost core, one strives ultimately for identification with All-Entity that is immanent in us. The challenge is to clear the channel, one's own psyche, to foster the free flow of the energy, wisdom, and harmony from within. In each type of philosophy, Eastern and Western, the individual is encouraged to overcome the inner blocks and conflicts caused by misunderstanding of true reality. Holistically, both approaches should go together.
Eastern philosophies point out, as did Socrates, that our problems are caused by our lack of understanding, lack of the right kind of knowledge. There is nothing wrong with physical reality. There is only inadequate understanding of the transcendent and immanent laws of nature. A malicious act is born from the misconception that one can gain an advantage by hurting somebody else. If we think and act like this, we emphasize the separation between us and others. This reduces our inner awareness of the harmonious whole that exists between us and others, our source-entity. Focusing on the conflict between sub-entities prevents awareness of the source-entity (HP4&6). Since our source-entity is immanent in us (HP9&10), the conflict blocks our access to our very source of life, health, and harmony. In this quite automatic way, a person can create a "life in hell" for him/herself, without anybody ever passing a judgement. On the other hand, the love that you give unselfishly emerges in your own heart. It is our mindset that creates our type of experience, as described under the Multiple Worlds section. The mindset acts like tinted glasses that impede access to the M-D whole.
This does not mean that every bad experience is due to some malicious intent. Challenging experiences can be important stepping stones for inner growth, set up by the inner self, without us being conscious of it in our daily life. Inner growth toward lasting happiness requires that we face our weaknesses, our conflicting notions that block our way. A firm conscious decision by a person to go the route towards enlightenment permeates the inner self and the soul, as any change of a part does (HP10). The self and the soul then lead the person via intuitions and impulses, perceived by us as our will. Depending on the determination of the individual, this may lead into unexpected challenges. What matters are the lessons learnt, the blocks purged, the consciousness expanded.