PREREQUISITES FOR CHAN PRACTICE
Chinese term for practising Chan is ts'an-ch'an, which means to investigate, engage,
or dig into (ts'an) the heart or living enlightenment of the Chan tradition. It
is often said in Chan that the door to Chan is "no door," that the method
of Chan is "no method," or that the practice of Chan is "no practice."
There is a famous story about Master Nan-yueh and his student, Ma-tsu. Upon finding
Ma-tsu sitting intently in meditation, Nan-yueh picked up a piece of tile and
began grinding it with a stone just outside Ma-tsu's hut.
annoyed, asked, "Why are you doing this?" Nan-yueh replied, "I
am polishing the tile to make a mirror out of it."
In ancient times,
mirrors were made of bronze and had to be regularly polished so that they would
reflect. Ma-tsu said, "That's ridiculous, you can't make a mirror by polishing
a piece of tile." To which Nan-yueh Huai-jang retorted sharply, "If
you can't make a mirror by polishing a tile, how can you possibly become a Buddha
by sitting in meditation?"
On another occasion, Lin-chi was sleeping soundly
at the rear of the meditation hall, while the head monk sat sternly in meditation
at the front of the hall. Master Huang-po came in and lightly tapped with his
staff on the meditation platform where Lin-chi was seated. For a moment Lin-chi
opened his eyes, looked up, and then went right back to sleep. Huang-po tapped
the platform again and walked off. When he came to the head of the hall and saw
the head monk meditating intently, he struck him a blow and said, "What do
you think you are doing with all your deluded thoughts? That man back there at
the rear of the hall is the one who is really meditating."
used to teach that one should make no artificial effort in practice but "simply
be an ordinary person with nothing to do." Ma-tsu taught that "the ordinary
everyday mind is the Way." Ta-chu, a disciple of Ma-tsu, is recorded as having
asserted that our mind is the same as Buddha. For our mind to seek the Buddha
is as unnecessary as the Buddha seeking the Buddha. Likewise our mind is identical
to the Dharma. To use our mind to seek the Dharma is like the Dharma seeking the
Dharma. That is also unnecessary. Buddha, mind, and sentient being are not different.
There is no Buddha outside of the mind, no Dharma outside of the mind and no sentient
beings outside either.
When we read such discourses on Chan, it seems that
Buddhist tradition of the three disciplines - purity in observance of precepts
of the Vinaya, and the cultivation of samadhi and wisdom through meditation -
has been turned on its head. Does Chan really involve no practice or no discipline
of any kind whatsoever? Yes, in certain respects Chan truly requires no learning,
no practice, no effort whatsoever. If it did depend on such things, then it would
not be Chan.
However, we are very active and artificial people, with far too
many things to do. We must have discipline to help us put an end to deficient
habits. For this reason it is not entirely correct to say that Chan involves no
practice. There are indeed principles that must be followed.
Shen-hui, a disciple
of the Sixth Patriarch Hui-neng, said that the precepts must be used to discipline
one's actions. Likewise, recitation of Buddhist Sutras - especially the Diamond
Sutra - and cultivation of samadhi should be used to eliminate defilements and
calm our restless minds. Only then will the wisdom of no-thought that is inherent
in one's original nature truly manifest.
Virtually all the major Chan masters
and their followers observed the traditional Hinayana precepts of the renunciant
and the Mahayana Bodhisattva precepts. There have been famous householder practitioners
of Chan, such as P'ang-yun and his family, But even though such persons' experience
might have been deep, few had much impact as teachers of Chan. Because they were
laymen, major communities of practitioners did not develop around them and their
sphere of influence tended to be limited.
We also have examples of Chan masters
who deliberately broke the Buddhist precepts. The most celebrated examples of
this sort - such as Nan-chuan's killing of the cat and Tan-hsia's burning of a
statue of the Buddha to keep warm - are all isolated incidents, not regular occurrences.
What is more, when one examines these events carefully, one finds that the actions
of these masters were primarily didactic - intended to make a point to their students
rather than to fulfil a personal whim. All in all, there are very few examples
of influential Chan masters who made a regular practice of going against the precepts,
and fewer still who advocated that their students engage in such behaviour.
have received either the precepts of a novice or full renunciant has always been
a minimum requirement for residence in a Sangha or practice hall of a Chan community.
Thus, in most Chinese Chan temples the traditional Buddhist monastic precepts
were strictly enforced. As Chan grew in popularity during the T'ang and Sung periods
of Chinese history, eminent teachers such as Pai-chang Huai-hai developed additional
codes for a comprehensive system of discipline and daily procedure better suited
to the training of monks in large monastic centres. These rules, known as ch'ing-kuei,
or "pure rules", supplemented but did not replace the original renunciatory
precepts. In fact, moral restraint, strict community routine, collective worship,
seated meditation, and regular discourses by and interviews with the Chan master
are all essential features of the programme described in the pure rules.
then, are we to make of the assertion that "practice is no practice"
or of the iconoclastic stories that we cited above? These teachings have real
significance only for persons who have been immersed in the institutions of Chan
training for a long time, or else persons of very unusual capacity. Indeed, the
grinding of the tile had such a profound impact on Ma-tsu only because Ma-tsu
had already dedicated so much time and effort to meditation. To any other person
they might prove meaningless, if not downright misleading. For this reason, such
stories - no matter how frivolous they may sound - must always be viewed within
the solemn context of Chan training. To do otherwise is to seriously misrepresent
The beautiful lotus blossom grows from putrid muck, but it is the blossom
itself that we prize, not the filth. That is to say, even though one may be forced
by circumstance to defile the precepts, it is purity that one should continue
to prize. Those who are unable to control themselves should keep the precepts
and fix their gaze on positive spiritual qualities.
In the case of saints
who have realised liberation, the precepts are indeed irrelevant, for their minds
are pure and are no longer afflicted by the passions. Needless to say, this does
not mean that they will wallow in the muck without restraint. Quite the contrary,
purity and liberation remain the supreme goal, but it is the purification and
liberation of others that becomes the focus now. Circumstances may warrant going
against the precepts but purity and liberation will still be the main concern.
The necessary course of action will be chosen out of clear deliberation and motivated
out of compassion rather than personal desire.
The idea that there must be
certain pre-conditions for the effective practice of Chan is really no different
from the original Buddhist teaching of the three disciplines of moral restraint,
samadhi, and wisdom. When the activity of body, speech, and mind is pure, the
Three Jewels of Buddha, Dharma, and Sangha are fully manifest. The genuine Three
Jewels, in essence, are none other than the enlightened Buddha nature that is
already inside you. They are fully manifest only when the three kinds of karma
are purified. To purify the three activities of body, speech and mind, one must
accord with the precepts and calm and clarify the mind through disciplined cultivation
of meditation. Indeed, when the three deeds are pure, you, the Three Jewels, everything,
are a single totality. If any one of the three deeds is impure the world will
appear defiled, Buddha will have long ago entered nirvana, the Dharma will be
empty words and paper, and the Sangha will be nowhere to be seen. Thus, when the
basic conditions of the three disciplines have been properly met and one's practice
has matured, the import of the Chan aphorism that "practice is no practice"
and the examples of Nan-yueh and Lin-chi will then come fully to life.